Tag Archives: validation

Today We Have Naming Of Parts: A Possible Way Out Of Some Terminological Problems With ABM

By Edmund Chattoe-Brown


Today we have naming of parts. Yesterday,
We had daily cleaning. And tomorrow morning,
We shall have what to do after firing. But to-day,
Today we have naming of parts. Japonica
Glistens like coral in all of the neighbouring gardens,
And today we have naming of parts.
(Naming of Parts, Henry Reed, 1942)

It is not difficult to establish by casual reading that there are almost as many ways of using crucial terms like calibration and validation in ABM as there are actual instances of their use. This creates several damaging problems for scientific progress in the field. Firstly, when two different researchers both say they “validated” their ABMs they may mean different specific scientific activities. This makes it hard for readers to evaluate research generally, particularly if researchers assume that it is obvious what their terms mean (rather than explaining explicitly what they did in their analysis). Secondly, based on this, each researcher may feel that the other has not really validated their ABM but has instead done something to which a different name should more properly be given. This compounds the possible confusion in debate. Thirdly, there is a danger that researchers may rhetorically favour (perhaps unconsciously) uses that, for example, make their research sound more robustly empirical than it actually is. For example, validation is sometimes used to mean consistency with stylised facts (rather than, say, correspondence with a specific time series according to some formal measure). But we often have no way of telling what the status of the presented stylised facts is. Are they an effective summary of what is known in a field? Are they the facts on which most researchers agree or for which the available data presents the clearest picture? (Less reputably, can readers be confident that they were not selected for presentation because of their correspondence?) Fourthly, because these terms are used differently by different researchers it is possible that valuable scientific activities that “should” have agreed labels will “slip down the terminological cracks” (either for the individual or for the ABM community generally). Apart from clear labels avoiding confusion for others, they may help to avoid confusion for you too!

But apart from these problems (and there may be others but these are not the main thrust of my argument here) there is also a potential impasse. There simply doesn’t seem to be any value in arguing about what the “correct” meaning of validation (for example) should be. Because these are merely labels there is no objective way to resolve this issue. Further, even if we undertook to agree the terminology collectively, each individual would tend to argue for their own interpretation without solid grounds (because there are none to be had) and any collective decision would probably therefore be unenforceable. If we decide to invent arbitrary new terminology from scratch we not only run the risk of adding to the existing confusion of terms (rather than reducing it) but it is also quite likely that everyone will find the new terms unhelpful.

Unfortunately, however, we probably cannot do without labels for these scientific activities involved in quality controlling ABMs. If we had to describe everything we did without any technical shorthand, presenting research might well become impossibly unwieldy.

My proposed solution is therefore to invent terms from scratch (so we don’t end up arguing about our different customary usages to no purpose) but to do so on the basis of actual scientific practices reported in published research. For example, we might call the comparison of corresponding real and simulated data (which at least has the endorsement of the much used Gilbert and Troitzsch 2005 – see pp. 15-19 – to be referred to as validation) CORAS – Comparison Of Real And Simulated. Similarly, assigning values to parameters given the assumptions of model “structures” might be called PANV – Parameters Assigned Numerical Values.

It is very important to be clear what the intention is here. Naming cannot solve scientific problems or disagreements. (Indeed, failure to grasp this may well be why our terminology is currently so muddled as people try to get their different positions through “on the nod”.) For example, if we do not believe that correspondence with stylised facts and comparison measures on time series have equivalent scientific status then we will have to agree distinct labels for them and have the debate about their respective value separately. Perhaps the former could be called COSF – Comparison Of Stylised Facts. But it seems plainly easier to describe specific scientific activities accurately and then find labels for them than to have to wade through the existing marsh of ambiguous terminology and try to extract the associated science. An example of a practice which does not seem to have even one generally agreed label (and therefore seems to be neglected in ABM as a practice) is JAMS – Justifying A Model Structure. (Why are your agents adaptive rather than habitual or rational? Why do they mix randomly rather than in social networks?)

Obviously, there still needs to be community agreement for such a convention to be useful (and this may need to be backed institutionally for example by reviewing requirements). But the logic of the approach avoids several existing problems. Firstly, while the labels are useful shorthand, they are not arbitrary. Each can be traced back to a clearly definable scientific practice. Secondly, this approach steers a course between the Scylla of fruitless arguments from current muddled usage and the Charybdis of a novel set of terminology that is equally unhelpful to everybody. (Even if people cannot agree on labels, they knew how they built and evaluated their ABMs so they can choose – or create – new labels accordingly.) Thirdly, the proposed logic is extendable. As we clarify our thinking, we can use it to label (or improve the labels of) any current set of scientific practices. We will do not have to worry that we will run out of plausible words in everyday usage.

Below I suggest some more scientific practices and possible terms for them. (You will see that I have also tried to make the terms as pronounceable and distinct as possible.)

Practice Term
Checking the results of an ABM by building another.[1] CAMWA (Checking A Model With Another).
Checking ABM code behaves as intended (for example by debugging procedures, destructive testing using extreme values and so on). TAMAD (Testing A Model Against Description).
Justifying the structure of the environment in which agents act. JEM (Justifying the Environment of a Model): This is again a process that may pass unnoticed in ABM typically. For example, by assuming that agents only consider ethnic composition, the Schelling Model (Schelling 1969, 1971) does not “allow” locations to be desirable because, for example, they are near good schools. This contradicts what was known empirically well before (see, for example, Rossi 1955) and it isn’t clear whether simply saying that your interest is in an “abstract” model can justify this level of empirical neglect.
Finding out what effect parameter values have on ABM behaviour. EVOPE (Exploring Value Of Parameter Effects).
Exploring the sensitivity of an ABM to structural assumptions not justified empirically (see Chattoe-Brown 2021). ESOSA (Exploring the Sensitivity Of Structural Assumptions).

Clearly this list is incomplete but I think it would be more effective if characterising the scientific practices in existing ABM and naming them distinctively was a collective enterprise.

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by the project “Towards Realistic Computational Models Of Social Influence Dynamics” (ES/S015159/1) funded by ESRC via ORA Round 5 (PI: Professor Bruce Edmonds, Centre for Policy Modelling, Manchester Metropolitan University: https://gtr.ukri.org/projects?ref=ES%2FS015159%2F1).

Notes

[1] It is likely that we will have to invent terms for subcategories of practices which differ in their aims or warranted conclusions. For example, rerunning the code of the original author (CAMWOC – Checking A Model With Original Code), building a new ABM from a formal description like ODD (CAMUS – Checking A Model Using Specification) and building a new ABM from the published description (CAMAP – Checking A Model As Published, see Chattoe-Brown et al. 2021).

References

Chattoe-Brown, Edmund (2021) ‘Why Questions Like “Do Networks Matter?” Matter to Methodology: How Agent-Based Modelling Makes It Possible to Answer Them’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 24(4), pp. 429-442. doi:10.1080/13645579.2020.1801602

Chattoe-Brown, Edmund, Gilbert, Nigel, Robertson, Duncan A. and Watts Christopher (2021) ‘Reproduction as a Means of Evaluating Policy Models: A Case Study of a COVID-19 Simulation’, medRXiv, 23 February. doi:10.1101/2021.01.29.21250743

Gilbert, Nigel and Troitzsch, Klaus G. (2005) Simulation for the Social Scientist, second edition (Maidenhead: Open University Press).

Rossi, Peter H. (1955) Why Families Move: A Study in the Social Psychology of Urban Residential Mobility (Glencoe, IL, Free Press).

Schelling, Thomas C. (1969) ‘Models of Segregation’, American Economic Review, 59(2), May, pp. 488-493. (available at https://www.jstor.org/stable/1823701)


Chattoe-Brown, E. (2022) Today We Have Naming Of Parts: A Possible Way Out Of Some Terminological Problems With ABM. Review of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 11th January 2022. https://rofasss.org/2022/01/11/naming-of-parts/


 

Challenges and opportunities in expanding ABM to other fields: the example of psychology

By Dino Carpentras

Centre for Social Issues Research, Department of Psychology, University of Limerick

The loop of isolation

One of the problems discussed during the last public meeting of the European Social Simulation Association (ESSA) at the Social Simulation Conference 2021 was the problem of reaching different communities outside the ABM one. This is a serious problem as we are risking getting trapped in a vicious cycle of isolation.

The cycle can be explained as follows. (a) Many fields are not familiar with ABM methods and standards. This results in the fact that (b) both reviewers and editors will struggle in understanding and evaluating the quality of an ABM paper. In general, this translates in a higher rejection rate and way longer time before publication. As results (c) fewer researchers in ABM will be willing to send their work to other communities, and, in general, fewer ABM works will be published in journals of other communities. Fewer articles using ABM makes it such that (d) fewer people would be aware of ABM, understand their methods and standards and even consider it an established research method.

Another point to consider is that, as time passes, each field evolves and develops new standards and procedures. Unfortunately, if two fields are not enough aware of each other, the new procedures will appear even more alien to members of the other community reinforcing the previously discussed cycle. A schematic of this is offered in figure 1.

fig1_v2

Figure 1: Vicious cycle of isolation

The challenge

Of course, a “brute force” solution would be to keep sending articles to journals in different fields until they get published. However, this would be extremely expensive in terms of time, and probably most researchers will not be happy of following this path.

A more elaborated solution could be framed as “progressively getting to know each other.” This would consist in modellers getting more familiar with the target community and vice versa. In this way, people from ABM would be able to better understand the jargon, the assumptions and even what is interesting enough to be the main result of a paper in a specific discipline. This would make it easier for members of our community to communicate research results using the language and methods familiar to the other field.

At the same time, researchers in the other field could slowly integrate ABM into their work, showing the potential of ABM and making it appear less alien to their peers. All of this would revert the previously discussed vicious cycle, by producing a virtuous one which would bring the two fields closer and closer.

Unfortunately, such goal cannot be obtained overnight, as it probably will require several events, collaborations, publications and probably several years (or even decades!). However, as result, our field would be familiar to and recognized by multiple other fields, enormously increasing the scientific impact of our research as well as the number of people working in ABM.

In this short communication, I would like to, firstly, highlight the importance and the challenges of reaching out other fields and, secondly, show a practical example with the field of psychology. I have chosen this field for no particular reason, besides the fact that I am currently working in the department of psychology. This gave me the opportunity of interacting with several researchers in this field.

In the next sections, I will summarize the main points of several informal discussions with these researchers. Specifically, I will try to highlight what they reported to be promising or interesting in ABM and also what felt alien or problematic to them.

Let me also stress that this does not want to be a complete overview, nor it should be thought as a summary of “what every psychologist think about ABM.” Instead, this is simply a summary of the discussions I had so far. What I hope, is that this will be at least a little useful to our community for building better connections with other fields.

The elephant in the room

Before moving to the list of comments on ABM I have collected, I want to address one point which appeared almost every time I discussed ABM with psychologists. Actually, it appeared almost every time I discuss ABM with people outside our field. This is the problem of experiments and validation.

I know there was recently a massive discussion on the SimSoc mailing list on opinion dynamics and validation, and this discussion will probably continue. Therefore, I am not going to discuss if all models should be tested, if a validated model should be considered superior, etc. Indeed, I do not want to discuss at all if validation should be considered important within our community. Instead, I want to discuss how important this is while interacting with other communities.

Indeed, many other fields give empirical data and validation a key role, having even developed different methods to test the quality of a hypothesis or a model when comparing it to empirical data (e.g. calculation of p-value, Krishnaiah 1980). Also, I repeatedly experienced disappointment or even mockery when I explained to non-ABM people that the model I was explaining them about was not empirically validated (e.g. the Deffuant model of opinion dynamics). In one single case, I even had a person laughing at me for this.

Unfortunately, many people which are not familiar with ABM end up considering it almost like a “nice exercise,” and even “not a real science.” This could be extremely dangerous for our field. Indeed, if multiple researchers will start thinking of ABM as a lesser science, communication with other fields – as well as obtaining funding for research – would get exponentially harder for our community.

Also, please, let me stress again to not “confuse the message with the messenger.” Here, I am not claiming that an unvalidated model should be considered inferior, or anything like that. What I am saying is that many people outside our field think in a similar fashion and this may eventually turn into a way bigger problem for us.

I will further discuss this point in the conclusion section, however, I will not claim that we should get rid of “pure models,” or that every model should be validated. What I will claim is that we should promote more empirical works as they will allow us to interact more easily with other fields.

Further points

In this section, I have collected (in no particular order) different comments and suggestions I have received from psychologist on the topic ABM. All of them had at least some experience of working side to side with a researcher developing ABMs.

Also in this case, please, remember that this are not my claims, but feedbacks I received. Furthermore, they should not be analysed as “what ABM is,” but more as “how ABM may look like to people in another field.”

  1. Some psychologists showed interest in the possibility of having loops in ABMs, which allow for relationships which go beyond simple cause and effect. Indeed, several models in psychology are structured in the form of “parameter X influences parameter Y” (and Y cannot influence X, forming a loop). While this approach is very common in psychology, many researchers are not satisfied with it, making ABMs are a very good opportunity for the development of more realistic models.
  2. Some psychologists said that at first impact, ABM looks very interesting. However, the extensive use of equations can confuse or even scare people who are not very used to them.
  3. Some praised Schelling’s model (Schelling 1971). Especially the approach of developing a hypothesis and then using an ABM to falsify it.
  4. Some criticized that often is not clear what an ABM should be used for or what such a model “is telling us.”
  5. Similarly, the use of models with a big number of parameters was criticized as “[these models] can eventually produce any result.”
  6. Another confusion that appeared multiple times was that often it is not clear if the model should be analysed and interpreted at the individual level (e.g. agents which start from state A often end up in state B) or at the more global level (e.g. distribution A results in distribution B).
  7. Another major complaint was that psychological measures are nominal or ordinal, while many models suppose interval-like variables.
  8. Another criticism was based on the fact that often agents behave all in the same way without including personal differences.
  9. In psychology there is a lot of attention on the sample size and if this is big enough to produce significant results. Some stressed that in many ABM works it is often not clear if the sample size (i.e. the number of agents) is sufficient for supporting the analysis.

Conclusion

I would like to stress again that these comments are not supposed to represent the thoughts of every psychologist, nor that I am suggesting that all the ABM literature should adapt to them or that they are always correct. For example, to my personal opinion, point 5 and 8 are pushing towards opposite directions; one aiming at simpler models and the other pushing towards complexity. Similarly, I do not think we should decrease the number of equations in our works to meet point 2. However, I think we should consider these feedbacks when planning interactions with the psychology community.

As mentioned before, a crucial role when interacting with other communities is played by experiments and validations. Even points 6 and especially points 7 and 9 suggest how member of this community often try to look for 1-to-1 relationships between agents of simulations and people in the real world.

fig2

Figure 2: (left) Empirical ABM acting as a bridge between theoretical ABM and other research fields. (Right) as the relationship between ABM and the other field matures, people become familiar with ABM standards and a direct link to theoretical ABM can be established.

As suggested by someone during the already mentioned discussion in the SimSoc mailing list, this could be solved by introducing a new figure (or, equivalently, a new research field) dedicated to empirical work in ABM. Following this solution, theoretical modellers could keep developing models without having to worry about validation. This would be similar to the work carried out by theoretical researchers in physics. At the same time, we would have also a stream of research dedicated to “experimental ABM.” People working on this topic will further explore the connection between models and the empirical world through experiments and validation processes. Of course, the two should not be mutually exclusive, as a researcher (or a piece of research) may still fall in both categories. However, having this distinction may help in giving more space to empirical work.

I believe that the role of experimental ABM could be crucial for developing good interactions between ABM and other communities. Indeed, this type of research could be accepted much more easily by other communities, producing better interactions with ABM. Especially, mentioning experiments and validation, could strongly decrease the initial mistrust that many people show when discussing ABM. Furthermore, as ABM develops stronger connections with another field, and our methods and standards become more familiar, we would probably also observe more people from the other community which would start looking into more theoretical ABM approaches and what-if scenarios (see fig 2).

References

Krishnaiah, P. R. (Ed.). (1980). A Hand Book of Statistics (Vol. 1). Motilal Banarsidass Publishe.

Schelling, T. C. (1971). Dynamic models of segregation. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 1(2), 143-186.

Edmonds, B. and Moss, S. (2005) From KISS to KIDS – an ‘anti-simplistic’ modelling approach. In P. Davidsson et al. (Eds.): Multi Agent Based Simulation 2004. Springer, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 3415:130–144.


Carpentras, D. (2020) Challenges and opportunities in expanding ABM to other fields: the example of psychology. Review of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 20th December 2021. https://rofasss.org/2021/12/20/challenges/


 

Flu and Coronavirus Simulator – A geospatial agent-based simulator for analyzing COVID-19 spread and public health measures on local regions

By Imran Mahmood

A Summary of: Mahmood et al. (2020)

In this paper we reviewed the lessons learned during the development of the ‘Flu and Coronavirus Simulator’ (FACS) and compare our chosen Agent-based Simulation approach with the conventional disease modelling approaches.

FACS provides an open-ended platform for the specification and implementation of the primary components of Agent-Based Simulation (ABS): (i) Agents; (ii) Virtual environment and (iii) Rule-set using a systematic Simulation Development Approach. FACS inherits features of a comprehensive simulation framework from its ancestors: (i) FLEE (Groen & Arabnejad, 2015) and (ii) FabSim3 (Groen & Arabnejad 2014). Where, FLEE mainly specializes in ABS complex dynamics e.g., agent movements; FabSim3 provides the ability to simulate a large population of agents with microscopic details using remote supercomputers. The combination of this legacy code offers numerous benefits including high performance, high scalability, and greater re-usability through a model coupling. Hence it provides an open-ended API for modellers and programmers to use it for further scientific research and development. FACS generalizes the process of disease modelling and provides a template to model any infectious disease. Thus allowing: (i) non-programmers (e.g., epidemiologists and healthcare data scientists) to use the framework as a disease modelling suite; and (ii) providing an open-ended API for modellers and programmers to use it for further scientific research and development. FACS offers a built-in location graph construction tool that allows the import of large spatial data-sets (e.g., Open Street Map), automated parsing and pre-processing of the spatial data, and generating buildings of various types, thus allowing ease in the synthesis of the virtual environment for the region under consideration. FACS provides a realistic disease transmission algorithm with the ability to capture population interactions and demographic patterns e.g., age diversity, daily life activities, mobility patterns, exposure at the street-level or in public transportation, use, or no use of face mask, assumptions of exposure within closed quarters.

We believe our approach has proven to be quite productive in modelling complex systems like epidemic spread in large regions due to ever-changing model requirements, multi-resolution abstraction, non-linear system dynamics, rule-based heuristics, and above all large-scale computing requirements. During the development of this framework, we learned that the real-world abstraction changes more rapidly than in other circumstances. For instance, the concept of social distancing and lockdown scenarios have evolved significantly since early March. Therefore, rapid changes in the ABS model were necessary. Model building in these cases benefits more from using a bottom-up approach like ABS, as opposed to any centralized analytical solution.

References

Groen, D., & Arabnejad, H. (2014). Fabsim3. GitHub. https://github.com/djgroen/FabSim3

Groen, D., & Arabnejad, H. (2015). Flee. GitHub. https:// github.com/djgroen/flee

Mahmood, I.,  Arabnejad, H., Suleimenova, D., Sassoon, I.,  Marshan, A.,  Serrano-Rico, A.,  Louvieris, P., Anagnostou, A., Taylor, S.J.E., Bell, D. & Groen, D. (2020) FACS: a geospatial agent-based simulator for analysing COVID-19 spread and public health measures on local regions, Journal of Simulation, DOI: 10.1080/17477778.2020.1800422


Mahmood, I. (2020) Flu and Coronavirus Simulator - A geospatial agent-based simulator for analyzing COVID-19 spread and public health measures on local regions. Review of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 10th Sept 2020. https://rofasss.org/2020/09/10/facs/


 

A Bibliography of ABM Research Explicitly Comparing Real and Simulated Data for Validation

By Edmund Chattoe-Brown

The Motivation

Research that confronts models with data is still sufficiently rare that it is hard to get a representative sense of how it is done and how convincing the results are simply by “background reading”. One way to advance good quality empirical modelling is therefore simply to make it more visible in quantity. With this in mind I have constructed (building on the work of Angus and Hassani-Mahmooei 2015) the first version of a bibliography listing all ABM attempting empirical validation in JASSS between 1998 and 2019 (along with a few other example) – which generates 68 items in all. Each entry gives a full reference and also describes what comparisons are made and where in the article they occur. In addition the document contains a provisional bibliography of articles giving advice or technical support to validation and lists three survey articles that categorise large samples of simulations by their relationships to data (which served as actual or potential sources for the bibliography).

With thanks to Bruce Edmonds, this first version of the bibliography has been made available as a Centre for Policy Modelling Discussion Paper CPM-20-216, which can be downloaded http://cfpm.org/discussionpapers/256.

The Argument

It may seem quite surprising to focus only on validation initially but there is an argument (Chattoe-Brown 2019) which says that this is a more fundamental challenge to the quality of a model than calibration. A model that cannot track real data well, even when its parameters are tuned to do so is clearly a fundamentally inadequate model. Only once some measure of validation has been achieved can we decide how “convincing” it is (comparing independent empirical calibration with parameter tuning for example). Arguably, without validation, we cannot really be sure whether a model tells us anything about the real world at all (no matter how plausible any narrative about its assumptions may appear). This can be seen as a consequence of the arguments about complexity routinely made by ABM practitioners as the plausibility of the assumptions does not map intuitively onto the plausibility of the outputs.

The Uses

Although these are covered in the preface to the bibliography in greater detail, such a sample has a number of scientific uses which I hope will form the basis for further research.

  • To identify (and justify) good and bad practice, thus promoting good practice.
  • To identify (and then perhaps fill) gaps in the set of technical tools needed to support validation (for example involving particular sorts of data).
  • To test the feasibility and value of general advice offered on validation to date and refine it in the face of practical challenges faced by analysis of real cases.
  • To allow new models to demonstrably outperform the levels of validation achieved by existing models (thus creating the possibility for progressive empirical research in ABM).
  • To support agreement about the effective use of the term validation and to distinguish it from related concepts (like verification) and potentially unhelpful (for example ambiguous or rhetorically loaded) uses

The Plan

Because of the labour involved and the diversity of fields in which ABM have now been used over several decades, an effective bibliography on this kind cannot be the work of a single author (or even a team of authors). My plan is thus to solicit (fully credited) contributions and regularly release new versions of the bibliography – with new co-authors as appropriate. (This publishing model is intended to maintain the quality and suitability for citation of the resulting document relative to the anarchy that sometimes arises in genuine communal authorship!) All of the following contributions will be gratefully accepted for the next revision (on which I am already working myself in any event)

  • References to new surveys or literature reviews that categorise significant samples of ABM research by their relationship to data.
  • References for proposed new entries to the bibliography in as much detail as possible.
  • Proposals to delete incorrectly categorised entries. (There are a small number of cases where I have found it very difficult to establish exactly what the authors did in the name of validation, partly as a result of confusing or ambiguous terminology.)
  • Proposed revisions to incorrect or “unfair” descriptions of existing entries (ideally by the authors of those pieces).
  • Offers of collaboration for a proposed companion bibliography on calibration. Ultimately this will lead to a (likely very small) sample of calibrated and validated ABM (which are often surprisingly little cited given their importance to the credibility of the ABM “project” – see, for example, Chattoe-Brown (2018a, 2018b).

Acknowledgements

This article as part of “Towards Realistic Computational Models of Social Influence Dynamics” a project funded through ESRC (ES/S015159/1) by ORA Round 5.

References

Angus, Simon D. and Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz (2015) ‘“Anarchy” Reigns: A Quantitative Analysis of Agent-Based Modelling Publication Practices in JASSS, 2001-2012’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 18(4), October, article 16. <http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/18/4/16.html> doi:10.18564/jasss.2952

Chattoe-Brown, Edmund (2018a) ‘Query: What is the Earliest Example of a Social Science Simulation (that is Nonetheless Arguably an ABM) and Shows Real and Simulated Data in the Same Figure or Table?’ Review of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 11 June. https://rofasss.org/2018/06/11/ecb/

Chattoe-Brown, Edmund (2018b) ‘A Forgotten Contribution: Jean-Paul Grémy’s Empirically Informed Simulation of Emerging Attitude/Career Choice Congruence (1974)’, Review of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 1 June. https://rofasss.org/2018/06/01/ecb/

Chattoe-Brown, Edmund (2019) ‘Agent Based Models’, in Atkinson, Paul, Delamont, Sara, Cernat, Alexandru, Sakshaug, Joseph W. and Williams, Richard A. (eds.) SAGE Research Methods Foundations. doi:10.4135/9781526421036836969


Chattoe-Brown, E. (2020) A Bibliography of ABM Research Explicitly Comparing Real and Simulated Data for Validation. Review of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 12th June 2020. https://rofasss.org/2020/06/12/abm-validation-bib/


 

A Forgotten Contribution: Jean-Paul Grémy’s Empirically Informed Simulation of Emerging Attitude/Career Choice Congruence (1974)

By Edmund Chattoe-Brown

Since this is new venture, we need to establish conventions. Since JASSS has been running since 1998 (twenty years!) it is reasonable to argue that something un-cited in JASSS throughout that period has effectively been forgotten by the ABM community. This contribution by Grémy is actually a single chapter in a book otherwise by Boudon (a bibliographical oddity that may have contributed to its neglect. Grémy also appears to have published mostly in French, which may also have had an effect. An English summary of his contribution to simulation might be another useful item for RofASSS.) Boudon gets 6 hits on the JASSS search engine (as of 31.05.18), none of which mention simulation and Gremy gets no hits (as does Grémy: unfortunately it is hard to tell how online search engines “cope with” accents and thus whether this is a “real” result).

Since this book is still readily available as a mass-market paperback, I will not reprise the argument of the simulation here (and its limitations relative to existing ABM methodology could be a future RofASSS contribution). Nonetheless, even approximately empirical modelling in the mid-seventies is worthy of note and the article is early to say other important things (for example about simulation being able to avoid “technical assumptions” – made for solubility rather than realism).

The point of this contribution is to draw attention to an argument that I have only heard twice (and only found once in print) namely that we should look at the form of real data as an initial justification for using ABM at all (please correct me if there are earlier or better examples). Grémy (1974, p. 210) makes the point that initial incongruities between the attitudes that people hold (altruistic versus selfish) and their career choices (counsellor versus corporate raider) can be resolved in either direction as time passes (he knows this because Boudon analysed some data collected by Rosenberg at two points from US university students) as well as remaining unresolved and, as such, cannot readily be explained by some sort of “statistical trend” (that people become more selfish as they get older or more altruistic as they become more educated). He thus hypothesises (reasonably it seems to me) that the data requires a model of some sort of dynamic interaction process that Grémy then simulates, paying some attention to their survey results both in constraining the model and analysing its behaviour.

This seems to me an important methodological practice to rescue from neglect. (It is widely recognised anecdotally that people tend to use the research methods they know and like rather than the ones that are suitable.) Elsewhere (Chattoe-Brown 2014), inspired by this argument, I have shown how even casually accessed attitude change data really looks nothing like the output of the (very popular) Zaller-Deffuant model of opinion change (very roughly, 228 hits in JASSS for Deffuant, 8 for Zaller and 9 for Zaller-Deffuant though hyphens sometimes produce unreliable results for online search engines too.) The attitude of the ABM community to data seems to be rather uncomfortable. Perhaps support in theory and neglect in practice would sum it up (Angus and Hassani-Mahmooei 2015, Table 5 in section 4.5). But if our models can’t even “pass first base” with existing real data (let alone be calibrated and validated) should we be too surprised if what seems plausible to us does not seem plausible to social scientists in substantive domains (and thus diminishes their interest in ABM as a “real method?”) Even if others in the ABM community disagree with my emphasis on data (and I know that they do) I think this is a matter that should be properly debated rather than just left floating about in coffee rooms (as such this is what we intend RofASSS to facilitate). As W. C. Fields is reputed to have said (though actually the phrase appears to have been common currency), we would wish to avoid ABM being just “Another good story ruined by an eyewitness”.

References

Angus, Simon D. and Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz (2015) ‘“Anarchy” Reigns: A Quantitative Analysis of Agent-Based Modelling Publication Practices in JASSS, 2001-2012’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 18(4):16.

Chattoe-Brown, Edmund (2014) ‘Using Agent Based Modelling to Integrate Data on Attitude Change’, Sociological Research Online, 19(1):16.

Gremy, Jean-Paul (1974) ‘Simulation Techniques’, in Boudon, Raymond, The Logic of Sociological Explanation (Harmondsworth: Penguin), chapter 11:209-227.


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